Bio technology is an age old applied technology where micro organisms have been exploited to produce product to enhance human health and human environment.
Bio technology requires fusion of different modern sciences including biological and technological sciences. it encompasses basic understanding fundamental concepts and their application in the area of molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, microbiology, biochemistry, biophysics, bio-processing and computer science etc.
M.Sc. biotechnology is demanding and challenging, course which requires intellectual and dedicated inputs from students as well as teachers. for imparting a useful and rigorous theory and practical training in this subject, it is recommended that M.sc. biotechnology course shall follow semester System.
The infrastructure faculty must be fulfilled and should be monitored regularly as needed time to time. the proposed course contents have been designed to improve the learning process of the student and to induce interactive teaching programme between student and the teachers.
This is also meant to cater up to date education in theoretical aspects and most relevant and latest training in practical skills.
Further enough scope has been provided in syllabus to modulate teaching programme to accommodate the recent developments in biotechnology and to suit the requirements of the student and the department.
There shall be four theory papers in each semester.
Practical in each exercise depends on theory paper. Practical exercise depends on theory syllabus and local available facilities.
In each semester candidate will be examined in theory and practical to make total 450 marks per semester.
75 marks of each theory paper i.e. total 300 marks per semester.
50 marks for each practical. However the total weightage shall be 150 for all four papers per semester.
Each theory paper examination will be of two hours duration.
Each Practical examination will be of more than four hours duration
There shall be one industrial excursion four within first two semester and students are required to submit an excursion report
Details of the Course :
M.Sc. bio technology will be a full time TWO YEAR course divided in to four semesters.
Number of students will be restricted to 15 (fifteen) and will be selected for admission through selection criteria i.e. entrance test, group discussion and personal interview.
Curricula will have inbuilt training facilities at highly specialized laboratories of industries
Modern state of the art laboratories will be established to provide online practical studies also.
There will he blend of highly qualified core as well as visiting faculty from various related disciplines.
This university have established the allied post graduate departments such as life science chemistry, mathematics physics and computer science which would be very helpful to this course
Criteria for Admission:
Any student holding basic science graduate degree may be eligible for appearing in the selection procedure.
Semester - I With Effect from June 2008
BT-101 Cell Biology
BT-103 Instrumentation and Analytical Technique
BT-104 Research Methodology & Professional practices in Biotechnology
Laboratory to each paper BT-101 TO BT-104
Semester - II With Effect from June 2008
BT-201 Genetics & Molecular Biology
BT-203 Biostatistics and computer application
BT-204 Environmental Biotechnology
Laboratory to each paper BT-201 TO BT-204
Semester - III With Effect from June 2009
BT-301 Genetic Engineering and Bioinformatics 70
BT-302 Agricultural Biotechnology 70
BT-303 Animal Biotechnology and Immunology 70
BT-304 Industrial Biotechnology 70
Laboratory Module 120
Semester - IV
Project Work 400
Duration of Marks :
Thesis Preparation 200
Presentation and Related viva 100
General viva 100
With Effect form June 2008
1. Evolution of Life, Cell theory, Cell types
2. Ultra-structure and function of bacterial cell organelles: cell wall, cell membrane, flagella, pilli, capsule, mesosome and nucleus; Ultra-structure
and functions of fungal cell
3. Major structural and functional features of eukaryotic cell: cell wall, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, mitochondria,
chloroplast, lysosome, nucleus, microtubules, peroxisomes and vacuoles
4. Structure and organization of chromatin, polytene and lamphbrush chromosome
5. Intracellular compartments: protein sorting secretory and endocytic pathway
6. Mechanism of eukaryotic (mitosis and meiosis) and prokaryotic cell division ; Cell cycle
7. Cell differentiation; cell-cell Interaction; cell communication
8. Characteristics of cancerous cell and malignant growth
9. Dosage compensation and sex determination and sex linked inheritance
10. Aging (Apoptosis)
1. De Robertis and De Robertis, Cell and Molecular Biology,
2. Alberts, Molecular Biology of Cell,
3. Cupper, The cell
4. R. M. Atlas, Principles of Microbiology
5. Prescott, Microbiology
6. David white, The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes
1. Basics of Chemistry for biologist
2. Principles of thermodynamics and bioenergetics
3. Carbohydrates : Characteristics and types of carbohydrates; metabolism of carbohydrates (EMP, ED,PPP, TCA etc. ), Gluconeogenesis and
4. Amino acids : Characteristics and types of Amino acids; Biosynthesis and catabolism, protein turn over
5. Lipids : Characteristics and types of Lipid; lipid metabolism : biosynthesis of fatty acids and lipids, catabolism of fatty acids and other lipids
6. Nucleotide metabolism : Characteristics and types of Nucleic acids; Biosynthesis and catabolism of purines and pyrimidines
7. Respiration: Bacterial and mitochondrial respiration; oxidative phosphorylation
8. Metabolic diversity: Photosynthesis in plant and microorganisms; Methanogenesis and acetogenesis; Nitrogen fixation, Ammonia assimilation,
Nitrification and Denitrification; Hydrocarbon transformation
9. Secondary metabolism : Characteristics, Product and regulation of secondary metabolites
10. Enzymology : An Introduction to Enzymes; How Enzymes Work; Enzyme Kinetics as an Approach to Mechanism; Enzyme inhibition; Examples of
Enzymatic Reactions; Regulatory Enzymes; Multi enzyme system
1. Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry
2. Stryer, Biochemistery
3. Voet and Voet, Bichemistery
4. Nicholes, Fundamentals of Enzymology
5. Trevor Palmer, Understanding Enzymes
1. Electrochyemistry : pH and buffers, potentiometric and conductometric titration
2. Principle and application of light, phase contrast, fluorescence, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling
microscopy, atomic force microscopy and confocal microscopy; Cytophotometry and flow cytometry; fixation and staining
3. Principle and application of gel- filtration, ion-exchange, affinity chromatography, Thin layer and gas chromatography, High pressure liquid
(HPLC ) chromatography and FPLC
4. Centrifugation: Basic principle and application; Differential, density and Ultracentrifugation
5. Principles of biophysical method used for analysis of biopolymer structure, X ray diffraction, fluorescence, UV,ORD/CD, visible, IR, NMR and ESR
6. Hydrodynamic methods; Atomic absorption and plasma emission spectroscopy; MALDI- TOF
7. Principle and technique of nucleic acid hybridization and cot curve; sequencing of proteins and nucleic acids; southern , Northern and South-
western blotting technique; Polymerase chain reaction; Methods for measuring nucleic acid and protein interactions
8. Electrphoresis: Principle and application of native, SDS , agarose, 2D gel electrophoresis
9. Principle and applications of tracer technique in biology; Radiation dosimetry ; Radioactive isotopes and half life of isotopes; Effect of radiation
on biological system; Autoradiography; Cerenkov radiation; liquid scintillation spectrometry
10. Biosensors : Principle and application
1. Sharma B K, Instrumental method of chemical analysis
2. D.A. Skoog, Instrumental methods of analysis
3. Plumner, An introduction to practical Biochemistry
4. Chatwal and Anand, Instrumentation
5. Boyer, Modern experimental Biology
Characteristic and type of scientific research
Research and Experimental design
Method of Data collection and Data analysis
Scientific Writing : Research proposal, Research Paper, Review paper, Thesis, Conference report, Book review and Project report; Reference writing, scientific abbreviations
Preparation and delivery of scientific presentations
Concept of Quality control and Assurance in life science research and industry
Concept of GMP, GLP, ISO, WHO
The Business of biotechnology: Biomarket space, Biotechnology company fundamentals, funding, research development and marketing; Fundamentals of Biotech business Managements Bio pricing strategies; Green business
Bio brand : formulating, Building, Sustaining and Renewing of biobrand
Legal and regulatory issues Legal and regulatory issues for Biotechnology based business
Biotechnology Sources book: Saftey, Good Practice and Regulatory Affairs, Biotol series
Yali Friedman, Building Biotechnology: Starting, Managing, And Understanding Biotechnology Companies
Garson, G.D, Guide to write scientific papers
1. Simple staining and negative staining
2. Gram’s staining
3. Acid fast staining
4. Cell wall staining
5. Capsule staining
6. Spore staining
7. Flagella staining
8. Metachromatic granule staining
9. Nucleus staining
10. Polytene chromosome
13. Study of plant cell
14. Study of animal cell
15. Demonstration of bar body and drum stick
16. Isolation of mitochondria
17. Isolation of chloroplast
18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbohydrates ( Coles, DNS and Anthron method)
19. Estimation proteins (Folin, Bradford and Biurates)
20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Amino acids
21. Estimation of lipid
22. Estimation of inorganic phosphorus
23. Estimation of inorganic nitrogen
24. Chemical and bioassays of antibiotics
25. Determination of Km and V max for Enzyme
26. Enzyme inhibition study
27. Standard operation procedure and validation of autoclave
28. Standard operation procedure and validation of pH meter
29. Standard operation procedure and validation of UV visible spectrophotometer
30. Standard operation procedure and validation of laminar air flow
31. Agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA
32. SDS PAGE analysis for Protein
33. Determination of pK value
34. Separation amino acid by paper chromatography
35. Separation of sugars/ fatty acid by thin layer chromatography
36. Determination of molecular weight of protein by Column chromatography
37. Ion exchange chromatography
38. Affinity chromatography
39. Estimation of Na and K by flame photometer
40. Submission of scientific Review in relevant topics
1. Mendel’s discoveries; Chromosomal theory of Heredity; Gene linkage and crossing over; Chromosome mapping; Concept of gene prokaryotic
and eukaryotic gene structure; genetic code
2. Organization of genome in prokaryotes, eukaryotes and cell organelles
3. DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; DNA amplification and rearrangement
4. Gene transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; post transcriptional modification
5. Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; post translational modifications; protein processing
6. Gene Regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; attenuation and antitermination; Operon concept; DNA methylation; Heterochromatization;
Transposition; regulatory sequences and transacting factor environmental regulation of gene expression; Phage strategies of gene regulation
7. Molecular basis of DNA Damage and repair; Isolation of mutant; Molecular basis of homologous and site specific Recombination
8. Extra-chromosomal elements : Plasmids, transposons Phage Mu
9. Signal transduction, Gradients, cascades and signaling pathway
10. Molecular biology of cancer; oncogenes; chemical carcinogenesis; Genetic and metabolic disorders; Genetic load and genetic counseling
1. Strickberger, Genetics.
2. Benjamin Lewin, Gene
3. R. M. Twymen, Advances in Molecular Biology
4. Syndeer and Champness. Molecular genetics of bacteria
5. Maloy, Microbial genetics
6. Malacinski, Essential of molecular biology
7. D.Watson, Molecular Biology of the Genes
Biodiversity Basics Biodiversity : Origin, speciation and extinction and ecological role of biodiversity; Types of biodiversity: alpha, beta, and gamma diversity
Techniques for molecular identification: Morphological methods, Biochemical, serological, Molecular methods, Fatty acid profiling, metabolic fingerprinting (Biolog), DGGE and TGGE
Taxonomy methods: Taxonomy and classification: Taxonomic Hierarchies; Classical approach to classification; Numerical taxonomy; Molecular taxonomy; modern methods of taxonomy and systematic.
Overview of plant biodiversity: Taxonomic criteria of classification; Classification system; Distinguishing and significant characteristics of representative group
Overview of animal biodiversity : Taxonomic criteria of classification; Classification system; Distinguishing and significant characteristics of representative group
Mycology : Taxonomic criteria of fungal classification; Distinguishing and significant characteristics of Mastigomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, Zygomycotina and Deuteromycotina; Fungal growth and differentiation; Protozoa: Structure, classification, reproductive strategies and economic importance; Algae : structure, classification, reproductive strategies and economic importance; algal ecology; lichens
Virology : Structure, classification, cultivation and economic importance of plant viruses and animal viruses; Structure, classification, cultivation and economic importance of Bacteriophage; Viroids; Prions
Phylogeny of microbial diversity: Evolution of Diverse microbial species; Microbial phylogy : Phylogenetic groups of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes
Differential characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Azotobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Myxobacteria, Corynebacteria, Chlamydia, Rickettesias, Mycoplasma and Actinomycetes
Archaebacteria : Phenotypes of Archea :
Methanogenic bacteria, extremophiles : thermophilic, halophilic bacteria;
Cell structure & composition; Eco-physiology; Taxonomy & nomenclature;
Salient features of representative group
1. R. M. Atlas, Principles of Microbiology
2. Prescott, Microbiology
3. Dubey, Introduction to Fungi
4. Alexoplous, Introductory mycology
5. Flint, Virology
6. Biswas, Viruses
7. Luria, Virology
Bio statistics: Definition and scope, collection, classification, tabulation of data and its graphical and diagrammatic presentation
Measures of central tendency, dispersion and standard error; Probability distributions: binomial, poisson and normal distribution
Statistical significance: Hypothesis testing, types of error, level of significance, Student’s t test, F test and Chi square goodness of fit
Simple linear regression and correlation analysis
Non parametric tests: Rank test, F-max test, Mann –Whitney (U) test, and Sign test.
History, development and types of computers; Computer hardware, software and peripheral devices; Computer logics and languages
Basic working on DOS, Windows and Linux
Database : Introduction, types and application of database and database management system
Introduction to Internet, Biological research on the web
General awareness and use of popular software and packages: SPSS, MINITAB, MATLAB, Microsoft office ( Word, Excel, Power Point, Access And Front Page)
1. Zar, Biostatistical Analysis.
2. Gibas, Developing Bioinformatics computer skill
3. Peek, Learning unix operating system
4. D.H. Sanders, Computers Today
1. Introduction to environment and its component ; Principles of ecology; Concept of ecosystem; abiotic and biotic components; Environmental
pollution: air, water, marine, land, noise, and solid waste pollution; Environmental Sample collection, processing and indicator microorganisms
2. Biotechnology of Waste Management : Types and characteristics of wastes; Principles and aim of biological waste treatment; Biochemistry
and microbiology of treatments for removal of nitrogen, inorganic phosphorous; Fixed film technologies: Trickling filters, rotation biological
contactors, activated bio-filters, fluidized bed reactors; Suspended growth technologies: activated sludge process; oxidation ditches, aerated
lagoons; Stabilization ponds sludge treatment and disposal; Anaerobic treatments; Solid waste management
3. Biofertilizers : Growth promotion by Free living bacteria, Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, microorganism to enhance Nitrogen fixation,
4. Bio-control of pathogens: Siderophores, antibiotics, enzyme, ice Nucleation and antifreeze Proteins, microbial insecticides : toxin of Bacillus
thuringiensis, Baculoviruses as biocontrol agent
5. Biofuels: Gasohol, Bioconversion of agriculture waste, Hydrogen and electricity
6. Biodegradation: Principles and mechanisms of biodegradation, Biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds (lignin, hydrocarbons, detergents, dyes
and pesticides); Biosurfactant: Microbial production and application
7. Bioremediation: Principle and techniques; in situ solid phase treatment; immobilized cells; Biosorption; bioaccumulation and Co-metabolism;
Bioremediation of oil spills, metal, hazardous wastes
8. Biodeterioration: Principle, microbial mechanism, prevention and control of wood, petroleum, textile, metal, paper, leather and food
9. Bioleaching: Principles and application; Biopulping and biobleaching
10. Environmental Impact Assessment, Risk Assessment, Environmental auditing & public hearing
Bernard R. Glick and Jack J. Pasternak, Molecular biotechnology: principles and application of Recombinant DNA, ASM press.
Bruce E. Rittmann and Perry L. Mccarty, Environemntal Biotechnology: Principles and application, McGraw- Hill International
Christson, Manual of Environmental Microbiology, ASM press
Eugenia J. Olguin, Gloria Sanchez and Elizabeth Hernandez, Environmental Biotechnology and Cleaner Bioprocess, Taylor and Francis
Martine Alexander, Biodegrdation and Bioremediation
Peter Morris (Editor), Riki Therivel, Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment
Ultraviolet irradiation survival curve
Fluctuation test, rapid - plate technology.
Isolation of auxotrophic
Isolation Respiratory deficient
Isolation of temperature sensitive mutant
Isolation of streptomycin mutant by gradient plate technique
Isolation and identification of bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae family
Isolation and identification of industrially important molds and fungi.
Isolation of bacteriophage
Screening of Extremophiles (Acidophiles / Alkaliphiles / Halophiles/ Psychrophiles / Thermophiles)
Study of Protozoan and algal permanent slide
Computation of Mean, Mode and Median.
Computation of Standard deviation and Co-efficient of variation.
Calculation of confidence limit for the population mean.
To perform Student's 't' test. (Paired and unpaired)
To perform ANOVA.
To perform regression and correlation analysis.
To perform Chi square goodness of fit
To perform non parametric tests
Application statistical software ( SPSS/ minitab/ metlab)
Use of Word, Excel, Power Point, Access and internet
Growth curve of E. coli and determination of growth rate and generation time
Effect of pH, temperature, salt and glucose on growth
Isolation of xenobiotic (dyes, pesticides) degrading micro organisms
Isolation of cellulose degrading microorganism
Isolation of hydrocarbon degrading microorganism
Study of Bioleaching
Study of lignin degrading activities
Isolation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria
Qualitative and quantitative determination of microbial siderophores
Water Analysis: Physicochemical analysis, BOD, COD and microbiological analysis of water
Microbiological analysis of air
Soil Analysis: Physico-chemical analysis, determination microbial biomass, determination soil enzyme activity
With Effect from June 2009
Concept and emergence of r-DNA technology, preparation and purification of total cell DNA, plasmid DNA and bacteriophage DNA.
Basic techniques involved in r-DNA technology.
a. Generation and cloning of DNA fragments.
b. Restriction enzymes, cDNA preparation.
c. Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries.
d. Solid phase synthesis of DNA, linkers, polylinker, adaptor etc.
e. Covalent linkage of DNA fragments to vector molecules.
DNA transactions in Microbes: Transformation, transduction and conjugation. Cloning vectors – Plasmids, cosmids, λ, phagemids, BAC,PAC, yeast artificial chromosomes, advanced yeast cloning vector and expression vectors,. Introduction of DNA/RNA in bacteria, yeast, fungi and in other Eukaryotic host systems.
Selection and screening of recombinant clones: Direct and indirect methods. Probe preparation (radio labeling and non radio labeling).
Methods based on nucleic acid homology Southern, Northern, Western, South-Western, subtractive, colony and plaque hybridization. Insitu chromosomal hybridization, chromosomal walks etc.)
Characterization of cloned DNA: Restriction mapping. DNA sequencing. Polymerase Chain Reaction. DNA fingerprinting, RFLP.
Expression of cloned DNA: Expression vectors, Expression in heterologus system.
Modification of cloned DNA: Site directed mutagenesis. Secretion of cloned products.
Applications of recombinant DNA technology: Transgenic animals. Gene therapy. Transgenic plants. Pharmaceutical products.
Safety of recombinant DNA technology: Restriction and regulation for the release of GMO’s.
Metagenomics: Cloning of DNA from environmental samples.Construction and screening of metagenomic libraries,application of metagenomics
Introduction to bioinformatics. Use of nucleic acid and protein data banks - NCBI, EMBL, DDBJ, SWISSPORT. Multiple sequence alignment. Gene prediction. Genome analysis and phylogenetic prediction.
Gibas and Jamback: Developing bioinformatics computer skills. O’Reilly Associates.
J. Peek, G. Todino & J. Straug: Learning unix operating system. O’Rerlly Asso.
Bioinformatics : A. V. Subramanian
P. Baldi & S. Brunak. Bioinformatics: A machine learning approach. M. I. T. Press
A.D. Bzxevanis and B.F. F. Onellette Bioinformatics: A Practical guide to the analysis of lienes and Proteins.
S. Misenes and S.A. Krawetz (Eds.) Methods in molecular biology vol. 132. Bioinformatics Methods and protocols.
Recombinant DNA : Watson et Al
Genetic engineering : Sandya Mitra
Principles of gene manipulation : Old & Primrose
Gene cloning : T. A. Brown
Molecular Biology Lab Fax I & II : T. A. Brwon
Practical module: Practical based on 301
Plant Biotechnology – J. Hammond, et al. Springer Verlag.
Plant cell and tissue culture for production of food ingredients – T.J. Fu, G. Singh et al.
Biotechnology in crop improvement – H.S. Chawla
Practical application of plant molecular biology – R.J. Henry, Chapman & Hall.
Elements of biotechnology – P.K .Gupta
An Introduction to plant tissue culture – M.K. Razdan
Plant propagation by tissue culture: The technology (Vol. 1 & 2) – Edwin George.
Handbook of Plant cell culture (vol. 1 to 4) – Evans et al. Mac millan.
Plant tissue and cell culture – H. E. Stret, Blackwell Scientific.
Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants (vol 1 to 3) – A.K. Vasil, A. Press.
Plant cell culture technology – M.M. Yeoman
Plant tissue culture and its biotechnological applications – W. Bary et al. Springer
Principles of plant biotechnology: An introduction to genetic engineering in plants – S.H. Mantell et al.
Advances in biochemical engineering/Biotechnology – Anderson et al.
Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell tissue and organ culture. Reinert & Bajaj Y.P.S., Springer (ed.), Springer Verlag.
Plant Cell and tissue culture. – S. Narayanswamy, Tata Mc Graw Hill.
Practical module: Practical based on 302
Structure and organization of animal cell; Equipments and materials for animal cell culture technology. Introduction to the balanced salt solutions and simple growth medium.
Brief discussion on the chemical, physical and metabolic functions of different constituents of culture medium.
Role of carbon dioxide. Role of serum and supplements. Serum and protein free defined media and their applications.
Primary and established cell line cultures. Measurement of viability and cytotoxicity. Basic techniques of mammalian cell culture; Cell cloning and cell separation. Cell synchronization. Cell transformation.
Scaling up of animal cell culture. Stem cell culture, embryogenic stem cells and their applications. Cell culture based vaccines. Somatic cell genetics. Organ and histotypic transgenic animals. Measurement of cell death. Apoptosis.
Freshney, R. I.: Culture of Animal Cells. Wiley- Liss
Masters, J.R. E. (ed): Animal Cell Culture – Practical Approach, Oxford Univ. Press.
Basega, R. (ed): Cell Growth and Division: A Practical Approach. IRL Press.
Butler, M. and Dawson, M. (eds.): Cell Culture Lab Fax, Eds., Bios Sci. Publ.
Clynes, M. (ed): Animal Cell Culture Techniques, Springer
Mather, J.P. and Barnes, D. (eds.): Methods in Cell Biology, vol. 57, Animal Cell Culture Methods. Aca. Press.
History of Immunology and Immunity, Immuno Response and its Characteristics, Nature of Immuno response, Primarry and Secondary Immuno Response, Adjuvants, Importance of Immune System and Immunology. Cells, Tissue and Organs of immune system :Anatomy of Immune System, Peripheral and Central Lymphoid System, Hematopoesis, Lymphoid and Myeloid Cells, Primary and Secondary Lymphoid Organs, Lymphatic System, Blood and Its Components, Blood Coagulation and Transfusion.
Immunity: Overview, Types, Innate and Acquired Immunity, Active and Passive Immunity, Natural and Artificial Immunity, Herd Immunity, Interrelationship between Innate and Acquired immunity, Physiological Importance of inflammation and fever, Cytokine and their role in immunity.
Antigen and Immunogen: Nature, Types of Antigen, Characteristics of Antigen, Antigenicity and Immunogeniciity, Epitopes, Epitopes recognized by B- Cells and T-cells, Super antigens and CDs, Haptens. Antibody: Historical consequence of determination of antibody structure, Basic structure, Classes, Biological Propertiesand Functions, Immunoglobulin super family, Generation of antibody diversity,Clonal Selection Theory, Monoclonal and Polyclonal antibodies and applications .
Antigen- antibody interaction: In vivo and In vitro. Hybridoma technology and other experimental systems.
Structure and classes of MHC molecules, antigen presenting cells
omplement system & Cell mediated immune responses. Cytokines and their biological role.
T and B cell generation.
Transplantation immunology, hypersensitivity, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency diseases.
Essential Immunology: Ivan Roitt.
Kuby Immunology: Goldsby, Kindt and Osborne.
Immunology : Roitt, Brostoff, Mole
Introductory Immunology : Huw Davies
Practical module: Practical based on 303
BIOPROCESS AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Introduction to bioprocess technology; Screening, preservation and improvement of industrially important microorganisms
Raw material and media formulation for fermentation process; Influence of environmental factors on growth and product formation
Elements of biochemical engineering :
1. Bioreactor design
2. Batch, fed batch and continuous cultivation
3. Solid state cultivation
4. Sterilization of media, reactor and air
5. Agitation, aeration and mass transfer of oxygen.
6. Inoculum development, addition and sampling
7. Growth kinetics: Microbial growth cycle, measurement of growth, growth kinetics.
8. Control of process parameters: Measurement of process parameters like pH, temperature, DO, foam etc. Instrumental process
control, two position and proportionate control, biosensors and enzyme probes, microprocessor based control systems.
9. Scale up of bioprocesses.
10. Downstream processing: Cell separation, cell disintegration, product purification.
11. Effluent treatment
12. Bioprocess economics
Enzyme technology: Immobilization of enzymes, enzyme reactors and bioconversion.
General concept of Microbial biotechnology; Principles of exploitation of microorganisms, primary and secondary metabolism
Microbial production of:
Antibiotics: Penicillin, streptomycin
Enzymes: proteases, amylases, lipases
Organic acids: Citric acid, acetic acid
Vitamins, Glutamic acid, lysine, Alkaloids, Alcohol, beer, wine, sake, Polysaccharides
Food and dairy products: Single cell protein, Single cell oil, Flavours, Cheese, bread and yogurt
Bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides
Biopolymers and bio-plastics
Biotechnology: Rehm and Reid
Comprehensive Biotechnology: Murray Moo Young
Economic Microbiology (series): A.H. Rose
Microbial Physiology: Moat and Foster
Practical module: Practical based on 304
For each paper at list six titles for lab. exercise will be declared at the beginning of each semester considering the relevance to the theory paper and laboratory facilities available.