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M.Sc. Biotechnology


    Bio technology is an age old applied technology where micro organisms have been exploited to produce product to enhance human health and human environment.

    Bio technology requires fusion of different modern sciences including biological and technological sciences. it encompasses basic understanding fundamental concepts and their application in the area of molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, microbiology, biochemistry, biophysics, bio-processing   and computer science etc.

    M.Sc. biotechnology is demanding and challenging, course which requires  intellectual and dedicated inputs from students as well as teachers. for imparting a useful and rigorous theory and practical training in this subject, it is recommended that M.sc. biotechnology course shall follow semester System.

    The infrastructure faculty must be fulfilled and should be monitored regularly as needed time to time. the proposed course contents have been designed to improve the learning process of the student and to induce interactive teaching programme between student and the teachers.

    This is also meant to cater up to date education in theoretical aspects and most relevant and latest training in practical skills.

    Further enough scope has been provided in syllabus to modulate teaching programme to accommodate the recent developments in biotechnology and to suit the requirements of the student and the department.

Semester Pattern
  1. There shall be four theory papers in each semester.

  2. Practical in each exercise depends on theory paper. Practical exercise depends on theory syllabus and local available facilities.

  3. In each semester candidate will be examined in theory and practical to make total 450 marks per semester.

    1. 75 marks of each theory paper i.e. total 300 marks per semester.

    2. 50 marks for each practical. However the total weightage shall  be 150 for all four papers per semester.

  4. Each theory paper examination will be of  two hours duration.

  5. Each Practical examination will be of more than four hours duration

  6. There shall be one industrial excursion four within first two semester and students are required to submit an excursion report

Details of the Course :

Criteria for Admission:

    Any student holding basic science graduate degree may be eligible for appearing in the selection procedure.


Semester - I            With Effect from June 2008

                            BT-101    Cell Biology

                            BT-102    Biochemistry

                            BT-103    Instrumentation and Analytical Technique 

                            BT-104    Research Methodology & Professional practices in Biotechnology

                            Laboratory to each paper BT-101 TO BT-104


Semester - II           With Effect from June 2008

                            BT-201    Genetics & Molecular Biology

                            BT-202    Biodiversity

                            BT-203    Biostatistics and computer application 

                            BT-204    Environmental Biotechnology

                            Laboratory to each paper BT-201 TO BT-204


Semester - III         With Effect from June 2009                                  

                            BT-301    Genetic Engineering and Bioinformatics                         70

                            BT-302    Agricultural Biotechnology                                          70

                            BT-303    Animal Biotechnology and Immunology                          70

                            BT-304    Industrial Biotechnology                                             70

                            Laboratory Module                                                                 120

Semester - IV         

                                  Project Work                                                                         400

                            Duration of Marks :

                                                    Thesis Preparation                                         200

                                                    Presentation and Related viva                          100

                                                    General viva                                                 100

Semester - I

With Effect form June 2008

BT-101 :    Cell Biology


1.   Evolution of Life, Cell theory, Cell types

2.   Ultra-structure and function of bacterial cell organelles: cell wall, cell membrane, flagella, pilli, capsule, mesosome and nucleus; Ultra-structure

      and functions of fungal cell

3.   Major structural and functional features of eukaryotic cell: cell wall,  plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, mitochondria,

      chloroplast, lysosome, nucleus, microtubules, peroxisomes and  vacuoles

4.   Structure and organization of chromatin, polytene and lamphbrush chromosome

5.   Intracellular compartments: protein sorting secretory and endocytic pathway

6.   Mechanism of eukaryotic (mitosis and meiosis) and prokaryotic cell division ; Cell cycle

7.   Cell differentiation; cell-cell Interaction; cell communication

8.   Characteristics of cancerous cell and malignant growth

9.   Dosage compensation and sex determination and sex linked inheritance

10.  Aging (Apoptosis)



1.   De Robertis and De Robertis,  Cell and Molecular Biology, 

2.   Alberts, Molecular Biology of Cell,   

3.   Cupper, The cell

4.   R. M. Atlas,  Principles of Microbiology

5.   Prescott, Microbiology

6.   David white, The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes

BT-102 :   Biochemistry


1.   Basics of Chemistry for biologist

2.   Principles of thermodynamics and bioenergetics

3.   Carbohydrates : Characteristics and types of carbohydrates; metabolism of carbohydrates (EMP, ED,PPP, TCA etc. ), Gluconeogenesis and

      glyoxylate cycle

4.   Amino acids : Characteristics and types of Amino acids; Biosynthesis and catabolism, protein turn over

5.   Lipids : Characteristics and types of Lipid; lipid metabolism : biosynthesis of fatty acids and lipids, catabolism of  fatty acids and other lipids

6.   Nucleotide metabolism : Characteristics and types of Nucleic acids;  Biosynthesis and catabolism  of purines and pyrimidines

7.   Respiration: Bacterial and mitochondrial respiration; oxidative phosphorylation

8.   Metabolic diversity: Photosynthesis in plant and microorganisms;  Methanogenesis and acetogenesis;  Nitrogen fixation, Ammonia assimilation, 

      Nitrification and Denitrification; Hydrocarbon transformation

9.   Secondary metabolism : Characteristics, Product and regulation of secondary metabolites

10.  Enzymology : An Introduction to Enzymes; How Enzymes Work; Enzyme Kinetics as an Approach to Mechanism; Enzyme inhibition; Examples of

      Enzymatic Reactions; Regulatory Enzymes; Multi enzyme system



1.    Lehninger,   Principles of Biochemistry 

2.    Stryer, Biochemistery   

3.    Voet and Voet, Bichemistery

4.    Nicholes, Fundamentals of Enzymology

5.    Trevor Palmer, Understanding Enzymes


BT-103    Instrumentation and Analytical Technique

1.    Electrochyemistry : pH and buffers, potentiometric and conductometric titration

2.    Principle and application of light, phase contrast, fluorescence, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling

       microscopy,  atomic force microscopy and  confocal microscopy; Cytophotometry and flow cytometry; fixation and staining

3.    Principle and application of gel- filtration, ion-exchange, affinity chromatography, Thin layer and gas chromatography, High pressure liquid

       (HPLC ) chromatography and FPLC

4.    Centrifugation: Basic principle and application; Differential, density and  Ultracentrifugation

5.    Principles of biophysical method used for analysis of biopolymer structure, X ray diffraction, fluorescence, UV,ORD/CD, visible, IR, NMR and ESR


6.    Hydrodynamic methods; Atomic absorption and plasma emission spectroscopy; MALDI- TOF

7.    Principle and technique of nucleic acid hybridization and cot curve; sequencing of proteins and nucleic acids; southern , Northern and South-

       western blotting technique; Polymerase chain reaction; Methods for measuring nucleic acid and protein interactions

8.    Electrphoresis: Principle and application of native, SDS , agarose, 2D gel electrophoresis

9.    Principle and applications of tracer technique in biology; Radiation dosimetry ; Radioactive isotopes and half life of isotopes; Effect of radiation

       on biological system; Autoradiography; Cerenkov radiation; liquid scintillation spectrometry

10.  Biosensors : Principle and application



1.    Sharma B K, Instrumental method of chemical analysis

2.    D.A. Skoog, Instrumental methods of analysis

3.    Plumner, An introduction to practical Biochemistry

4.    Chatwal and Anand,  Instrumentation

5.    Boyer, Modern experimental Biology


BT-104    Research Methodology & Professional practices in Biotechnology
  1. Characteristic and type of scientific research

  2. Research and Experimental design

  3. Method of Data collection and Data analysis

  4. Scientific Writing : Research proposal, Research Paper, Review paper, Thesis,  Conference report, Book review and   Project report; Reference writing, scientific abbreviations

  5. Preparation and delivery of scientific presentations

  6. Concept of Quality control and Assurance in life science research and industry

  7. Concept of  GMP, GLP, ISO, WHO

  8. The Business of biotechnology:  Biomarket space,  Biotechnology company fundamentals, funding, research development and marketing; Fundamentals of Biotech business Managements  Bio pricing strategies; Green business

  9. Bio brand : formulating, Building, Sustaining and  Renewing of biobrand

  10. Legal and regulatory issues Legal and regulatory issues for Biotechnology based business



  1. Biotechnology Sources book: Saftey, Good Practice and Regulatory Affairs, Biotol series

  2. Yali Friedman, Building Biotechnology: Starting, Managing, And Understanding Biotechnology Companies

  3. Garson, G.D,  Guide to write scientific papers

Laboratory Module - I


1.    Simple staining and negative staining

2.    Gram’s staining

3.    Acid fast staining

4.    Cell wall staining

5.    Capsule staining

6.    Spore staining

7.    Flagella staining

8.    Metachromatic granule staining

9.    Nucleus staining

10.  Polytene chromosome

11.  Mitosis

12.  Meiosis

13.  Study of plant cell

14.  Study of animal cell

15.  Demonstration of bar body and drum stick

16.  Isolation of mitochondria

17.  Isolation of chloroplast

18.  Qualitative and quantitative analysis of  carbohydrates ( Coles, DNS and Anthron method)

19.  Estimation proteins (Folin, Bradford and Biurates)  

20.  Qualitative and quantitative analysis of  Amino acids

21.  Estimation of lipid

22.  Estimation of inorganic phosphorus

23.  Estimation of inorganic nitrogen

24.  Chemical and bioassays of  antibiotics

25.  Determination of Km and V max for Enzyme

26.  Enzyme inhibition study

27.  Standard operation procedure and validation of autoclave

28.  Standard operation procedure and validation of pH meter

29.  Standard operation procedure and validation of UV visible spectrophotometer

30.  Standard operation procedure and validation of laminar air flow

31.  Agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA

32.  SDS PAGE analysis for Protein 

33.  Determination of pK value

34.  Separation amino acid by paper chromatography

35.  Separation of sugars/ fatty acid by thin layer chromatography

36.  Determination of molecular weight of protein by Column chromatography

37.  Ion exchange chromatography

38.  Affinity chromatography

39.  Estimation of Na and K by flame photometer

40.  Submission of scientific Review in relevant topics 


Semester - II
with effect from JUNE : 2008
BT-201    Genetics & Molecular Biology


1.    Mendel’s discoveries; Chromosomal theory of Heredity; Gene linkage and crossing over; Chromosome mapping; Concept of gene prokaryotic

       and eukaryotic gene structure; genetic code

2.    Organization of genome in prokaryotes, eukaryotes and  cell organelles

3.    DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; DNA amplification and rearrangement

4.    Gene transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; post transcriptional modification

5.    Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; post translational modifications; protein processing

6.    Gene Regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; attenuation and antitermination; Operon concept; DNA methylation; Heterochromatization;

       Transposition; regulatory sequences and transacting factor environmental regulation of gene expression; Phage strategies of gene regulation 

7.    Molecular basis of DNA Damage and repair; Isolation of mutant; Molecular basis of homologous and site specific Recombination 

8.    Extra-chromosomal elements : Plasmids, transposons Phage Mu

9.    Signal  transduction, Gradients, cascades and signaling pathway

10.   Molecular biology of cancer; oncogenes; chemical carcinogenesis; Genetic and metabolic disorders; Genetic load and genetic counseling



1.     Strickberger, Genetics.

2.     Benjamin Lewin, Gene

3.     R. M. Twymen, Advances in Molecular Biology

4.     Syndeer and Champness. Molecular genetics of bacteria

5.     Maloy, Microbial genetics

6.     Malacinski, Essential of molecular biology

7.     D.Watson, Molecular Biology of the Genes


BT-202    Biodiversity


  1. Biodiversity Basics Biodiversity : Origin, speciation and extinction and ecological role of biodiversity; Types of biodiversity: alpha, beta, and  gamma diversity

  2. Techniques for molecular identification: Morphological methods, Biochemical, serological, Molecular methods, Fatty acid profiling, metabolic fingerprinting (Biolog), DGGE and TGGE

  3. Taxonomy methods: Taxonomy and classification: Taxonomic Hierarchies; Classical approach to classification; Numerical taxonomy; Molecular taxonomy; modern methods of taxonomy and systematic. 

  4. Overview of plant biodiversity: Taxonomic criteria of classification; Classification system; Distinguishing and significant characteristics of representative group

  5. Overview of animal biodiversity : Taxonomic criteria of classification; Classification system; Distinguishing and significant characteristics of representative group

  6. Mycology : Taxonomic criteria of fungal classification; Distinguishing and significant characteristics of Mastigomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, Zygomycotina and Deuteromycotina; Fungal growth and differentiation; Protozoa: Structure, classification, reproductive strategies and economic importance; Algae : structure, classification, reproductive strategies and economic importance; algal ecology; lichens

  7. Virology : Structure, classification, cultivation and economic importance of plant viruses and animal viruses; Structure, classification, cultivation and economic importance of Bacteriophage; Viroids; Prions 

  8. Phylogeny of microbial diversity: Evolution of Diverse microbial species; Microbial phylogy : Phylogenetic groups of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes

  9. Differential characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Azotobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Myxobacteria, Corynebacteria, Chlamydia, Rickettesias, Mycoplasma and Actinomycetes

  10. Archaebacteria : Phenotypes of Archea : Methanogenic bacteria, extremophiles : thermophilic, halophilic bacteria; Cell structure & composition; Eco-physiology; Taxonomy & nomenclature; Salient features of representative group


1.    R. M. Atlas,  Principles of Microbiology

2.    Prescott, Microbiology

3.    Dubey, Introduction to Fungi

4.    Alexoplous, Introductory mycology

5.    Flint, Virology

6.    Biswas, Viruses

7.    Luria, Virology


BT-  203    Biostatistics and computer application 


  1. Bio statistics: Definition and scope, collection, classification, tabulation of data and its graphical and diagrammatic presentation

  2. Measures of central tendency, dispersion and standard error; Probability distributions: binomial, poisson and normal distribution

  3. Statistical significance: Hypothesis testing, types of error, level of significance, Student’s t test, F test and Chi square goodness of fit

  4. Simple linear regression and correlation analysis

  5. Non parametric tests: Rank test, F-max test, Mann –Whitney (U) test, and Sign test.

  6. History, development and types of computers; Computer hardware, software and peripheral devices; Computer logics and languages

  7. Basic working on  DOS, Windows and Linux

  8. Database : Introduction, types and application of database and database management system 

  9. Introduction to Internet, Biological research on the web

  10. General awareness and use of popular software and packages: SPSS,  MINITAB, MATLAB, Microsoft office ( Word, Excel, Power Point, Access And Front Page)   


    1.    Zar, Biostatistical Analysis.

    2.    Gibas,  Developing Bioinformatics computer skill

    3.    Peek, Learning unix operating system

  4.    D.H. Sanders,  Computers Today


BT-204    Environmental Biotechnology


1.    Introduction to environment and its component ; Principles of ecology; Concept of ecosystem; abiotic and  biotic components; Environmental

       pollution: air, water, marine, land, noise, and solid waste pollution; Environmental Sample collection, processing and indicator microorganisms

2.    Biotechnology of Waste Management : Types and characteristics of wastes; Principles and aim of biological waste treatment; Biochemistry

       and microbiology of treatments for removal of nitrogen, inorganic phosphorous; Fixed film technologies: Trickling filters, rotation biological

       contactors, activated bio-filters, fluidized bed reactors; Suspended growth technologies: activated sludge process; oxidation ditches, aerated

       lagoons; Stabilization ponds sludge treatment and disposal; Anaerobic treatments; Solid waste management

3.    Biofertilizers : Growth promotion by Free living bacteria, Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, microorganism to enhance Nitrogen fixation,

4.    Bio-control of pathogens: Siderophores, antibiotics, enzyme, ice Nucleation and antifreeze Proteins, microbial insecticides : toxin of Bacillus

       thuringiensis, Baculoviruses as biocontrol agent

5.    Biofuels: Gasohol, Bioconversion of agriculture waste, Hydrogen and electricity

6.    Biodegradation: Principles and mechanisms of biodegradation, Biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds (lignin, hydrocarbons, detergents, dyes

       and pesticides); Biosurfactant: Microbial production and  application

7.    Bioremediation: Principle and techniques; in situ solid phase treatment; immobilized cells; Biosorption; bioaccumulation and Co-metabolism;

       Bioremediation of  oil spills, metal, hazardous wastes

8.    Biodeterioration: Principle, microbial mechanism, prevention and control of wood, petroleum, textile, metal, paper, leather and  food


9.     Bioleaching: Principles and application; Biopulping and biobleaching

10.   Environmental Impact Assessment, Risk Assessment, Environmental auditing & public hearing



  1. Bernard R. Glick and Jack J. Pasternak, Molecular biotechnology: principles and application of Recombinant DNA, ASM press.

  2. Bruce E. Rittmann and Perry L. Mccarty, Environemntal Biotechnology: Principles and application, McGraw- Hill International

  3. Christson, Manual of Environmental Microbiology, ASM press

  4. Eugenia J. Olguin, Gloria Sanchez and Elizabeth Hernandez, Environmental Biotechnology and Cleaner Bioprocess, Taylor and Francis

  5. Martine Alexander, Biodegrdation and Bioremediation

  6. Peter Morris (Editor), Riki Therivel, Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment


Laboratory Module-II
  1. Ultraviolet irradiation survival curve

  2. Fluctuation test, rapid - plate technology.

  3. Isolation of auxotrophic

  4. Isolation Respiratory deficient

  5. Isolation of temperature sensitive mutant

  6. Isolation of streptomycin mutant by gradient plate technique

  7. Isolation and identification of bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae family

  8. Isolation and identification of industrially important molds and fungi.

  9. Isolation of bacteriophage

  10. Screening of Extremophiles (Acidophiles / Alkaliphiles / Halophiles/ Psychrophiles / Thermophiles)

  11. Study of Protozoan and algal  permanent slide

  12. Computation of Mean, Mode and Median.

  13. Computation of Standard deviation and Co-efficient of variation.

  14. Calculation of confidence limit for the population mean.

  15. To perform Student's 't' test. (Paired and unpaired)

  16. To perform ANOVA.

  17. To perform regression and correlation analysis.

  18. To perform Chi square goodness of fit

  19. To perform non parametric tests

  20. Application statistical software ( SPSS/ minitab/ metlab)

  21. Use of Word, Excel, Power Point, Access and  internet

  22. Growth curve of E. coli and determination of growth rate and generation time

  23. Effect of pH, temperature, salt and glucose on growth

  24. Isolation of xenobiotic (dyes, pesticides)  degrading  micro organisms

  25. Isolation of  cellulose degrading microorganism

  26. Isolation of  hydrocarbon degrading microorganism

  27. Study of Bioleaching

  28. Study of lignin degrading activities

  29. Isolation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria

  30. Qualitative and quantitative determination of microbial siderophores

  31. Water Analysis: Physicochemical analysis, BOD, COD and microbiological analysis of water

  32. Microbiological analysis of air

  33. Soil Analysis: Physico-chemical analysis, determination microbial biomass, determination soil enzyme activity


Semester - III

With Effect from June 2009

BT-301    Genetic Engineering and Bioinformatics



  1. Concept and emergence of r-DNA technology, preparation and purification of total cell DNA, plasmid DNA and bacteriophage DNA.

  2. Basic techniques involved in r-DNA technology.  

            a.    Generation and cloning of DNA fragments. 

            b.    Restriction enzymes, cDNA preparation.

            c.    Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries. 

            d.    Solid phase synthesis of DNA, linkers, polylinker, adaptor etc. 

            e.    Covalent linkage of DNA fragments to vector molecules.

  1. DNA transactions in Microbes:   Transformation, transduction and conjugation.  Cloning vectors – Plasmids, cosmids, λ, phagemids, BAC,PAC, yeast artificial chromosomes, advanced yeast cloning vector and expression vectors,.   Introduction of DNA/RNA in bacteria, yeast, fungi  and in other Eukaryotic host systems.

  2. Selection and screening of recombinant clones:  Direct and indirect methods.  Probe preparation (radio labeling and non radio labeling).

  3. Methods based on nucleic acid homology Southern, Northern, Western, South-Western, subtractive, colony and plaque hybridization. Insitu chromosomal hybridization, chromosomal walks etc.)

  4. Characterization of cloned DNA: Restriction mapping.  DNA sequencing.  Polymerase Chain Reaction.  DNA fingerprinting, RFLP.

  5. Expression of cloned DNA:  Expression vectors, Expression in heterologus system.

  6. Modification of cloned DNA:  Site directed mutagenesis.  Secretion of cloned products.

  7. Applications of recombinant DNA technology:   Transgenic animals.  Gene therapy.  Transgenic plants.  Pharmaceutical products.

  8. Safety of recombinant DNA technology:  Restriction and regulation for the release of GMO’s.

  9. Metagenomics: Cloning of DNA from environmental samples.Construction and screening of metagenomic libraries,application of metagenomics



  1. Introduction to bioinformatics. Use of nucleic acid and protein data banks - NCBI, EMBL, DDBJ, SWISSPORT.  Multiple sequence  alignment. Gene prediction.  Genome analysis and phylogenetic prediction.




  1. Gibas and Jamback:  Developing bioinformatics computer skills. O’Reilly Associates.

  2. J. Peek, G. Todino & J. Straug: Learning unix operating system.  O’Rerlly Asso.

  3. Bioinformatics : A. V. Subramanian

  4. P. Baldi & S. Brunak.  Bioinformatics: A machine learning approach. M. I. T. Press

  5. A.D. Bzxevanis and B.F. F. Onellette Bioinformatics:  A Practical guide to the analysis of lienes and Proteins.

  6. S. Misenes and S.A. Krawetz (Eds.) Methods in molecular biology vol. 132.  Bioinformatics Methods and protocols.

  7. Recombinant DNA  :  Watson et Al

  8. Genetic engineering  :  Sandya Mitra

  9. Principles of gene manipulation :  Old  & Primrose

  10. Gene cloning : T. A. Brown

  11. Molecular Biology Lab Fax  I & II : T. A. Brwon


Practical module: Practical based on 301


BT-302    Agricultural Biotechnology


  1. Conventional plant breeding, Introduction to cell and tissue culture; Tissue culture as a technique to produce novel plants and hybrids.
  2. Callus and suspension cultures: Tissue culture media (Composition and preparation), Initiation and maintenance of callus and suspension cultures Single cells clones.
  3. Organogenesis; Somatic embryogenesis; Transfer and establishment of whole plants in soil; Shoot tip culture; Rapid clonal propagation  and production of virus-free plants; Embryo culture and embryo rescue; Protoplast isolation, culture and fusion; Selection of hybrid cells and regeneration of hybrid plants; Symmetric and asymmetric hybrids, cybrids; Anther, pollen and ovary culture for production of haploid plants and homozygous lines.
  4. Cryopreservation; Slow growth and DNA banking for germplasm conservation.
  5. Somaclonal variation; In vitro mutation – Sexual incompatibility and male sterility.
  6. Plant transformation technology  -  Basis of tumor formation; Hairy root; features of Ti and Ri plasmids; Mechanisms of DNA transfer, Role of virulence genes; Use of Ti and Ri as vectors; Binary vectors; Use of 35S and other promoters; Genetic markers; Use of reporter genes; Reporter gene with introns; Use of scaffold attachment regions; Methods of nuclear transformation; Viral vectors and their applications; Multiple gene transfers; Vector-less or direct DNA transfer; Particle bombardment, electroporation, microinjection; Transformation of monocots, Transgene stability and gene silencing.
  7. Application of plant transformation for productivity and performance  - herbicide resistance, insect resistance, Bt genes, Non Bt like protease inhibitors, alpha amylase inhibitor, virus resistance, coat protein mediated disease resistance, disease resistance, RIP, anti-fungal proteins, PR proteins, nematode resistance. abiotic stress.
  8. Molecular marker aided breeding – RFLP maps, linkage analysis, RAPD markers, microsatellites, SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions), SSCP (Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism), AFLP, QTL, map based cloning, and molecular marker assisted selection.
  9. Metabolic engineering and industrial products – Plant secondary metabolites, control mechanisms and manipulation of phenyl propanoid pathway, shikimate pathway; alkaloids.
  10. Green house and green home technology.




  1. Plant Biotechnology – J. Hammond, et al. Springer Verlag.

  2. Plant cell and tissue culture for production of food ingredients – T.J. Fu, G. Singh et al.

  3. Biotechnology in crop improvement – H.S. Chawla

  4. Practical application of plant molecular biology – R.J. Henry, Chapman & Hall.

  5. Elements of biotechnology – P.K .Gupta

  6. An Introduction to plant tissue culture – M.K. Razdan

  7. Plant propagation by tissue culture: The technology (Vol. 1 & 2) – Edwin George.

  8. Handbook of Plant cell culture (vol. 1 to 4) – Evans et al. Mac millan.

  9. Plant tissue and cell culture – H. E. Stret, Blackwell Scientific.

  10. Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants (vol 1 to 3) – A.K. Vasil, A. Press.

  11. Plant cell culture technology – M.M. Yeoman

  12. Plant tissue culture and its biotechnological applications – W. Bary et al. Springer

  13. Principles of plant biotechnology:  An introduction to genetic engineering in plants – S.H. Mantell et al.

  14. Advances in biochemical engineering/Biotechnology – Anderson et al.

  15. Applied and fundamental aspects of plant cell tissue and organ culture. Reinert & Bajaj Y.P.S., Springer (ed.), Springer Verlag.

  16. Plant Cell and tissue culture. – S. Narayanswamy, Tata Mc Graw Hill.


Practical module: Practical based on 302


BT-303    Animal Biotechnology and Immunology 



  1. Structure and organization of animal cell; Equipments and materials for animal cell culture technology.  Introduction to the balanced salt solutions and simple growth medium.

  2. Brief discussion on the chemical, physical and metabolic functions of different constituents of culture medium.

  3. Role of carbon dioxide.  Role of serum and supplements.  Serum and protein free defined media and their applications.

  4. Primary and established cell line cultures.  Measurement of viability and cytotoxicity.  Basic techniques of mammalian cell culture; Cell cloning and cell separation.  Cell synchronization.  Cell transformation.

  5. Scaling up of animal cell culture.  Stem cell culture, embryogenic stem cells and their applications.  Cell culture based vaccines.  Somatic cell genetics.  Organ and histotypic transgenic animals.  Measurement of cell death.  Apoptosis.



  1. Freshney, R. I.: Culture of Animal Cells.  Wiley- Liss

  2. Masters, J.R. E. (ed): Animal Cell Culture – Practical Approach, Oxford Univ. Press.

  3. Basega, R. (ed): Cell Growth and Division: A Practical Approach.  IRL Press.

  4. Butler, M. and Dawson, M. (eds.): Cell Culture Lab Fax, Eds., Bios Sci. Publ.

  5. Clynes, M. (ed): Animal Cell Culture Techniques, Springer

  6. Mather, J.P. and Barnes, D. (eds.): Methods in Cell Biology, vol. 57, Animal Cell Culture Methods.  Aca. Press.



  1. History of Immunology and Immunity, Immuno Response and its Characteristics, Nature of Immuno response, Primarry and Secondary Immuno Response, Adjuvants, Importance of Immune System and Immunology. Cells, Tissue and Organs of immune system :Anatomy of Immune System, Peripheral and Central Lymphoid System, Hematopoesis, Lymphoid and Myeloid Cells, Primary and Secondary Lymphoid Organs, Lymphatic System, Blood and Its Components, Blood Coagulation and Transfusion.

  2. Immunity: Overview, Types, Innate and Acquired Immunity, Active and Passive Immunity, Natural and Artificial Immunity, Herd Immunity, Interrelationship between Innate and Acquired immunity, Physiological Importance of inflammation and fever, Cytokine and their role in immunity.

  3. Antigen and Immunogen: Nature, Types of Antigen, Characteristics of Antigen, Antigenicity and Immunogeniciity, Epitopes, Epitopes recognized by B- Cells and T-cells, Super antigens and CDs, Haptens. Antibody: Historical   consequence of determination of antibody structure, Basic structure, Classes,   Biological Propertiesand Functions, Immunoglobulin super family, Generation of antibody diversity,Clonal Selection Theory, Monoclonal and Polyclonal antibodies and applications .

  4. Antigen- antibody interaction: In vivo and In vitro. Hybridoma technology and other experimental systems.

  5. Structure and classes of MHC molecules, antigen presenting cells

  6. omplement system & Cell mediated immune responses. Cytokines and their biological role.

  7. T and B cell generation.

  8. Transplantation immunology, hypersensitivity, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency diseases.

  9. Tumor immunology.



  1. Essential Immunology:  Ivan Roitt.

  2. Kuby Immunology:  Goldsby, Kindt and Osborne.

  3. Immunology : Roitt, Brostoff, Mole

  4. Introductory Immunology  :  Huw Davies


Practical module: Practical based on 303


BT-304   Industrial Biotechnology



  1. Introduction to bioprocess technology; Screening, preservation and improvement of industrially important microorganisms

  2. Raw material and media formulation for fermentation process; Influence of environmental factors on growth and product formation

  3. Elements of biochemical engineering :


            1.   Bioreactor design

            2.   Batch, fed batch and continuous cultivation

            3.   Solid state cultivation

            4.   Sterilization of media, reactor and air

            5.   Agitation, aeration and mass transfer of oxygen.

            6.   Inoculum development, addition and sampling

            7.   Growth kinetics: Microbial growth cycle, measurement of growth, growth kinetics.

            8.   Control of process parameters: Measurement of process parameters like pH, temperature, DO, foam etc.  Instrumental process

                control, two position and proportionate control, biosensors and enzyme probes, microprocessor based control systems.

            9.    Scale up of bioprocesses.

            10.  Downstream processing:  Cell separation, cell disintegration, product purification.

            11.  Effluent treatment

            12.  Bioprocess economics


  1. Enzyme technology:  Immobilization of enzymes, enzyme reactors and bioconversion.



  1.   General concept of Microbial biotechnology; Principles of exploitation of microorganisms, primary and secondary metabolism

  2.   Microbial production of:

            Antibiotics:  Penicillin, streptomycin

            Enzymes:  proteases, amylases, lipases

            Organic acids:  Citric acid, acetic acid

            Vitamins, Glutamic acid, lysine, Alkaloids, Alcohol, beer, wine, sake, Polysaccharides

            Food and dairy products: Single cell protein, Single cell oil, Flavours, Cheese, bread and yogurt

            Mushroom cultivation

            Steroid transformation

            Bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides

            Biopolymers and bio-plastics



  1. Biotechnology:  Rehm and Reid

  2. Comprehensive Biotechnology:  Murray Moo Young

  3. Economic Microbiology (series):  A.H. Rose

  4. Microbial Physiology:  Moat and Foster


Practical module: Practical based on 304


Laboratory Moudle


For each paper at list six titles for lab. exercise will be declared at the beginning of each semester considering the relevance to the theory paper and laboratory facilities available.

Semester - IV
Project Work