Marks distribution in each subject:

            Each subject shall have a maximum of 200 marks. 

                        Theory                             :        100                       

                        Practical/ Clinical              :        100                       


                        Theory 100                                                  Practical/clinicals       :    100


                        University written exam           :       70          University Exam    :          90               

                        Viva Voce                              :       20                                   

                                Internal assessment                 :       10             Internal assessment    :       10           


                                        Total                   :      100                                             :   100


                        Pre-clinical Prosthodontics

                        Pre-clinical Conservative Dentistry…..      Internal Assessment             :       20

                                                                                                                     University Practical exam   :        60

                                                                                                                     Viva voce                         :       20


                                                                                                    Total  :      100


Semester - I


SI. No. Subject Lecture Hours Practical Hours Clinical Hours Total Hours
1 General Human Anatomy Including Embryology, Osteology And Histology  100 175 -- 275
2 General Human Physiology 120 60 -- 180
3 Biochemistry 70 60 -- 130
4 Dental  Anatomy Embryology and Oral Histology   80 120 -- 200
5 Dental Materials 20 40 -- 60
6 Pre clinical Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge -- 100 -- 100


415 685 -- 1100


Semester - II


SI. No. Subject Lecture Hours Practical Hours Clinical Hours Total Hours
1 General & Dental Pharmacology and Therapeutics 70 20 -- 90
2 General Pethology 55 55 -- 110
3 Microbiology 65 50 -- 115
4 Dental Materials 60 200 -- 260
5 Oral Pathology and Oral Microbiology 25 50 -- 75
6 Pre Clinical Prosthodontics  & Crown and Bridge 25 200 -- 225
7 Pre Clinical Conservative Dentistry 25 200 -- 225


325 775 -- 1100


Semester - III


SI. No. Subject Lecture Hours Practical Hours Clinical Hours Total Hours
1 General Medicine 60 -- 90 150
2 General Surgery 60 -- 90 150
3 Oral Pathology and Oral Microbiology 120 80 -- 200
4 Oral Medicine and Radiology 20 -- 70 90
5 Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry 20 -- 70 90
6 Orthodontics and Dentofacial  Orthopaedics 20 -- 70 90
7 Periodontology 30 -- 70 100
8 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 20 -- 70 90
9 Conservative Dentistry  and Endodontics 30 -- 70 100
10 Prosthodontics & Crown and Bridge 30 -- 70 100


410 -- 750 1160


Semester - IV


SI. No. Subject Lecture Hours Practical Hours Clinical Hours Total Hours
1 Oral Medicine & Radiology 45 -- 130 175
2 Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry 45 -- 130 175
3 Orthodontics and Dentofacial  Orthopaedics 30 -- 130 160
4 Periodontology 50 -- 130 180
5 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 20 -- 90 110
6 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics  30 -- 90 120
7 Prostodontics & Crown and Bidge 30 -- 90 120
8 Public Health Dentistry 30 -- 90 120


280 -- 880 1160


Semester - V


SI. No. Subject Lecture Hours Practical Hours Clinical Hours Total Hours
1 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 30 -- 200 230
2 Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics 50 -- 300 350
3 Prostodontics & Crown and Bridge 50 -- 300 350
4 Public Health Dentistry 30 -- 200 230


160 -- 1000 1160





        The students should gain the knowledge and insight into, the functional anatomy of the normal  human  head  and  neck,  functional histology  and  an  appreciation  of  the  genetic basis  of  inheritance  and  disease,  and  the  embryological  development  of  clinically important structures.  So that relevant anatomical & scientific foundations are laid down for the clinical years of the BDS course.





                 At  the  end  of  the  1st   year  BDS  course  in  Anatomical  Sciences  the  undergraduate student is

Expected to:

1.   Know  the  normal  disposition  of  the  structures  in  the  body  while  clinically examining a patient and while conducting clinical


2.   Know the anatomical basis of disease and injury.

3.   Know  the  microscopic  structure  of  the  various  tissues,  a  pre-requisite  for understanding of the disease processes.

4.   Know the nervous system to locate the site of lesions according to the sensory and or motor deficits encountered.

5.   Have  an  idea  about  the  basis  of  abnormal  development,  critical  stages  of development,  effects  of  teratogens,  genetic  mutations  and  environmental hazards.

6.   Know  the  sectional  anatomy  of  head  neck  and  brain  to  read  the  features  in radiographs and pictures  taken by modern

      imaging techniques.

7.   Know the anatomy of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation

        b)   SKILLS

1.   To locate various structures of the body   and to mark the topography of the living anatomy.

2.   To identify various tissues under microscope.

3.   To identify the features in radiographs and modern imaging techniques.

4.   To detect various congenital abnormalities.




         By emphasising on the relevant information and avoiding unwanted details, the anatomy taught integrally with other basic sciences & clinical subjects not only keeps the curiosity alive  in  the  learner  but  also  lays  down  the  scientific  foundation  for  making  a  better doctor, a benefit to the society.


This insight is gained in a variety of ways:

           1) Lectures & small group teaching

2) Demonstrations

3) Dissection of the human cadaver

4) Study of  dissected specimens

5) Osteology

6) Surface anatomy on living individual

7) Study of radiographs & other modern imaging techniques.

8) Study of Histology  slides.

9) Study of embryology  models

10) Audio-visual aids

        Throughout  the  course,  particular  emphasis  is  placed  on  the  functional  correlation, clinical application & on integration with teaching in other bio dental disciplines. 



1.   General  anatomy:  Introduction  of  anatomical  terms  and  brief  outline  of various systems of the body.

           2.   Regional anatomy of head & neck with osteology of bones of head & neck, with emphasis on topics of dental importance.

           3.   General disposition of thoracic, abdominal  & pelvic organs.

           4.   The regional anatomy of the sites of intramuscular & intra vascular injections, & lumbar  puncture.

           5 . General embryology & systemic embryology with respect to development of   head  &  neck.

           6.  Histology of basic tissues and  of the organs of gastroinstenstinal, respiratory, Endocrine, excretory systems & gonads.

           7.   Medical genetics.





  1. Anatomical terms.

  2. Skin, superficial fascia & deep fascia

  3. Cardiovascular system, portal system collateral circulation and arteries.

  4. Lymphatic system, regional lymph nodes

  5. Osteology -  Including ossification & growth of  bones

  6. Myology – Including types of muscle tissue & innervation.

  7. Syndesmology – Including  classification of Joints.

  8. Nervous system



01. Scalp, face & temple, lacrimal apparatus 02.  Neck  -  Deep  fascia  of neck,  posterior  triangle,  suboccipital  triangle,

anterior triangle,  anterior  median region of the neck, deep structures in the neck.03.Cranial  cavity  -  Meninges,  partsof brain,

ventricles of brain, dural venous sinuses, cranial nerves attached to the brain, pituitary gland.04. Cranial nerves - III, IV, V,VI, VII,

IX,XII in detail.05.Orbital cavity Muscles of the eye ball,  supports of the eye ball, nerves and  vessels in the orbit 06.Parotid

gland. 07.Temporo mandibular joint, muscles of  mastication, infratemporal fossa, pterygo - palatine  fossa.08.  Submandibular

region 09.  Walls of the nasal cavity, paranasal air sinuses10. Palate 11. Oral cavity, Tongue 12. Pharynx (palatine  tonsil  and the

auditory tube) Larynx. OSTEOLOGY Foetal skull, adult skull, individual bones of the skull, hyoid bone and cervical vertebrae


III.THORAX : Demonstration  on a dissected specimen of

1. Thoracic wall            2. Heart chambers        3. Coronary arteries      4. Pericardium

5. Lungs – surfaces ; pleural cavity                    6. Diaphragm


IV. ABDOMEN : Demonstration  on a dissected specimen of

1. Peritoneal cavity             2.Organs in the abdominal  & pelvic cavity.



a)   Intramuscular  injections:  Demonstration  on  a  dissected  specimen  and  on  a living person of the following sites of injection.

        1. Deltoid muscle and its relation to the axillary nerve and radial nerve.

        2. Gluteal region and the  relation of the sciatic nerve.

        3. Vastus lateralis muscle.

b) Intravenous injections & venesection: Demonstration of veins in the dissected specimen  and on a living person.

        1. Median cubital vein     2. Cephalic vein     3. Basilic vein     4. Long saphenous vein

c) Arterial  pulsations:  Demonstration  of  arteries  on  a  dissected  specimen  and feeling of

     pulsation of the following arteries on a living person.

        1. Superficial temporal     2. Facial     3. Carotid     4. Axillary     5. Brachial     6. Radial

        7. Ulnar     8. Femoral      9. Popliteal     10. Dorsalispedis

d) Lumbar puncture: Demonstration on a dissected specimen of  the spinal cord, cauda equina & epidural space and the inter

    vertebral space between L4 & L5



    Oogenesis,  Spermatogenesis,  Fertilisation,   Placenta,   Primitiv  streak,  Neural crest,  Bilaminar  and  trilaminar  embryonic

    disc,  Intra  embryonic  mesoderm  - formation  and  fate,  notochord  formation  &  fate,  Pharyngeal  arches,  pouches  & clefts, 

     Development   of   face,   tongue,   palate,  thyroid   gland,   pituitary   gland, salivary glands, and  anomalies in their evelopment,

    Tooth development in brief.



The Cell :

Basic tissues - Epithelium, Connective tissue including cartilage and bone,Muscle 

Tissue,   Nervous tissue : Peripheral nerve, optic nerve, sensory ganglion, motor ganglion, Skin


Classification of Glands

Salivary  glands  (serous,  mucous  and  mixed  gland),  Blood  vessels,  Lymphoid tissue  Tooth,  lip,  tongue,  hard  palate,

oesphagus,  stomach,  ,duodenum  ,ileum, colon,  vermiform  appendix  Liver,  Pancreas,  Lung,  Trachea  ,Epiglottis,  Thyroid

gland , para thyroid gland , supra renal gland and pituitary gland, Kidney, Ureter, Urninary bladder, Ovary and testis.



Mitosis, meiosis, Chromosomes, gene structure, Mendelism, modes of inheritance




1. SNELL (Richard S.) Clinical Anatomy for Medical  Students, Ed. 5, Llittle Brown &

    company, Boston.

2. RJ LAST’S Anatomy – McMinn, 9th  edition.

3. ROMANES(G.J.) Cunningham Manual of Practical Anatomy : Head & Neck & Brain

    Ed.15.Vol.III, Oxford Medical publication.

4. WHEATER,BURKITT     DANIELS,   Functional   Histology,   Ed.   2,   Churchill


5. SADLER , LANGMAN’S, Medical Embryology, Ed. 6.

6. JAMES E ANDERSON, Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. Williams & Wilkins.

7. WILLIAMS, Gray’s Anatomy, Ed.38. ,Churchill Livingstone.

8. EMERY,Medical Genetics.



    General Human Physiology



        The broad goal of the teaching undergraduate students in Physiology aims at providing the student comprehensive knowledge of the

      normal functions of the organ systems of the body to facilitate an understanding of the physiological basis of health and disease.




          a)  KNOWLEDGE

                 At the end of the course, the student will be able to:

             1.  Explain the normal functioning of all the organ systems and their interactions for well co-ordinated total body function.

             2.  Assess the relative contribution of each organ system towards the maintenance of the milieu interior.

             3.  List the physiological principles underlying the pathogenesis and treatment of disease.

          b) SKILLS

                At the end of the course, the student shall be able to:

             1.  Conduct experiments designed for the study of physiological phenomena.

             2.  Interprete experimental and investigative data.

             3.  Distinguish between normal and abnormal data derived as a result of tests which he/she has performed and observed in the


          c)  INTEGRATION

                   At the end of the integrated teaching the student shall acquire an integrated knowledge of organ structure and function and its regulatory        





                   1.  GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY:--

                    1.   Homeostasis: Basic concept, Feed back mechanisms.

                    2.   Structure of cell membrane, transport across cell membrane.

                    3.   Membrane potentials.


               2.  BLOOD:--

                Composition & functions of blood:

                    1.    Specific gravity, Packed cell volume, factors affecting & methods of determination. Plasma proteins - Types, concentration, functions &variations.

                    2.    Erythrocyte - Morphology, functions & variations. Erythropoiesis & factors affecting erythropoiesis.

                    3.    ESR- Methods of estimation, factors affecting, variations & significance.

                    4.    Haemoglobin - Normal concentration, method of determination & variation in concentration.

                    5.    Blood Indices - MCV, MCH, MCHC - definition, normal values, variation.

                    6.    Anaemia - Definition, classification, life span of RBC’s destruction of RBC’s , formation & fate of bile pigments, Jaundice - types.

                    7.    Leucocytes : Classification, number, percentage, distribution morphology, properties, functions & variation. Role of lymphocytes in immunity ,

                           leucopoiesis life span & fate of leucocytes.

                    8.    Thromobocytes - Morphology, , number, variations, function & thrombopoiesis. Haemostatsis - Role of vasoconstriction, platelet plug formation

                           in  haemostasis, coagulation factors, intrinsic & extrinsic pathways of coagulation, clot retraction.

                    9.    Tests of haemostatic function, platelet count, clotting time, bleeding time, prothrombin time - normal values, method & variations. Anticoagulants -

                           mechanism of action. Bleeding disorders.

                  10.    Blood groups: ABO & Rh system, method of determination, importance, indications & dangers of blood transfusion, blood substitutes.

                  11.    Blood volume: Normal values, variations.

                  12.    Body fluids : distribution of total body water, intracellular & extra cellular compartments, major anions & cations in intra and extra cellular fluid.

                  13.    Tissue fluids & lymph : Formation of tissue fluid, composition, circulation & functions of lymph. Oedema - causes.

                  14.    Functions of reticulo endotrelial system.


              3.  MUSCLE AND NERVE:--

                 Classification of nerves, structure of skeletal muscle - Molecular mechanism of muscle contraction, neuromuscular transmission. Properties of skeletal    

                  smuscle. Structure and properties of cardiac muscle & smooth muscle.


              4.   DIGESTIVE SYSTEM:--

                   1.    Introduction to digestion : General structure of G.I. tract, Innervation.

                   2.    Salivary glands: Structure of salivary glands, composition , regulation of secretion & functions of saliva.

                   3.    Stomach: Composition and functions of gastric juice, mechanism and regulation of gastric secretion.

                   4.    Exocrine Pancreas - Structure, composition of pancreatic juice, functions of each component, regulation of pancreatic secretion.

                   5.    Liver : structure , composition of bile, functions of bile, regulation of secretion

                   6.    Gall bladder : structure, functions.

                   7.    Small intestine - Composition, functions & regulation of secretion of intestinal juice.

                   8.    Large intestine - Functions.

                   9.    Motor functions of GIT: Mastication, deglutition, gastric filling & emptying, movements of small and large intestine, defecation.


             5.    EXCRETORY SYSTEM:--

                   1.    Structure & functions of kidney, functional unit of kidney & functions of different parts.

                   2.    Juxta glomerular apparatus, renal blood flow.

                   3.    Formation of Urine : Glomerular filteration rate - definition, determination , normal values, factors influencing G.F.R. Tubular reabsorption -

                          Reabsorption of sodium, glucose, water & other substances. Tubular secretion - secretion of urea, hydrogen and other substances.

                   4.    Mechanism of concentration & dilution of urine.

                   5.    Role of kidney in the regulation of pH of the blood.

                   6.    Micturition : anatomy & innervation of Urinary bladder, mechanism of miturition & abnormalities.




            7.   ENDOCRINOLOGY:--

                  1.    General endocrinology - Enumeration of endocrine glands & hormones - General functions of endocrine system, chemistry, mechanism of

                         secretion, transport, metabolism, regulation of secretion of hormones.

                  2.    Hormones of anterior pituitary & their actions, hypothermic regulation of anterior pituitary function. Disorders of secretion of anterior pituitary


                  3.    Posterior pituitary : Functions, regulation & disorders of secretion.

                  4.    Thyroid: Histology, synthesis, secretion & transport of hormones, actions of hormones, regulation of secretion & disorders, Thyroid function tests.

                  5.    Adrenal cortex & Medulla -synthesis, secretion, action, metabolism, regulation of secretion of hormones & disorders. 

                  6.    Other hormones - Angiotensin, A.N.F.


           8.   REPRODUCTION:--

                  1.    Sex differentiation , Physiological anatomy of male and female sex organs.

                  2.    Female reproductive system : Menstrual cycle, functions of ovary, actions of oestrogen &  Progesterone, control of secretion of ovarian hormones,

                         tests for  ovulation, fertilisation, implantation, maternal changes during pregnancy, pregnancy tests & parturition.

                  3.    Lactation, composition of  milk, factors controlling lactation, milk ejection, reflex.

                  4.    Male reproductive system :spermatogenesis, semen and contraception.    



                 1.     Functional anatomy and innervation of heart Properties of cardiac muscle.

                 2.     Origin & propagation of cardiac impulse and heart block..

                 3.     Electrocardiogram - Normal electrocardiogram.

                 4.     Two changes in ECG in myocardial infarction.

                 5.     Cardiac cycle - Phases, Pressure changes in atria, ventricles & aorta..

                 6.     Volume changes in ventricles.

                 7.     Jugular venous pulse, arterial pulse.

                 8.     Heart sounds: Mention of murmurs.

                 9.     Heart rate: Normal value, variation & regulation.

                 10.   Cardiac output: Definition, normal values, one method of determination, variation, factors affecting heart rate and stroke volume.

                 11.   Arterial blood pressure: Definition, normal values & variations, determinants, regulation & measurement of blood pressure.

                 12.   Coronary circulation.

                 13.   Cardio vascular homeostasis - Exercise & posture.


         10.     RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:--

                 1.    Physiology of Respiration : External & internal respiration. Functional anatomy of respiratory passage & lungs.

                 2.    Respiratory movements: Muscles of respiration, Mechanism of inflation & deflation of lungs.

                 3.    Intra pleural & intra pulmonary pressures & their changes during the phases of respiration.

                 4.    Mechanics of breathing - surfactant, compliance & work of breathing.

                 5.    Spirometry: Lung volumes & capacities definition, normal values, significance, factors affecting vital capacity, variations in vital capacity, FEV & its


                 6.    Pulmonary ventilation - alveolar ventilation & dead space – ventilation.

                 7.    Composition of inspired air, alveolar air and expired air.

                 8     Exchange of gases: Diffusing capacity, factors affecting it.

                 9.    Transport of Oxygen & carbon dioxide in the blood.

                10.   Regulation of respiration – neural & chemical.

                11.   Hypoxia, cyanosis, dyspnoea, periodic breathing.

                12.   Artificial respiration, pulmonary function tests.


         11.     CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM:--

                 1.    Organisation of central nervous system.

                 2.    Neuronal organisation at spinal cord level.

                 3.    Synapse receptors, reflexes, sensations and tracts .

                 4.    Physiology of pain.

                 5.    Functions of cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex..

                 6.    Formation and functions of CSF.

                 7.    Autonomic nervous system.


         12.     SPECIAL SENSES:--

                   Fundamental knowledge of vision, hearing, taste and smell.



                The following list of practical is minimum and essential. All the practical have been categorized as procedures and demonstrations. The procedures are to

         be performed by the students during practical classes to acquire skills. All the procedures are to be included in the University practical examination. Those

        categorized as demonstrations are to be shown to the students during practical classes. However these demonstrations would not be included in the University

        examinations but question based on this would be given in the form of charts, graphs and calculations for interpretation by the students.



                1.     Enumeration of Red Blood Cells.

                2.     Enumeration of White Blood Cells.

                3.     Differential leucocyte counts.

                4.     Determination of Haemoglobin.

                5.     Determination of blood group.

                6.     Determination of bleeding time and clotting time.

                7.     Examination of pulse.

                8.     Recording of blood pressure.



                1.     Determination of packed cell volume and erythrocyte sedimentation rate .

                2.     Determination of specific gravity of blood.

                3.     Determination of erythrocyte fragility.

                4.     Determination of vital capacity and timed vital capacity.

                5.     Skeletal muscle experiments.

                 Study of laboratory appliances in experimental physiology. Frog’s gastrocneminus sciatic preparation. Simple muscle curve, effects of two

        successive stimuli, effects of increasing strength of stimuli, effects of temperature, genesis of fatigue and tetanus. Effect of after load and free load

        on muscle contraction, calculation of  work done.

                6.     Electrocardiography: Demonstration of recording of normal Electro cardiogram

                7.     Clinical examination of cardiovascular and respiratory system.


          TEXT BOOKS:

               1.    Guyton; Text book of Physiology, 9th edition.

               2.    Ganong; Review of Medical Physiology, 19th edition.

               3.    Vander; Human physiology, 5th edition.

               4.    Choudhari; Concise Medical Physiology, 2nd edition.

               5.    Chaterjee; Human Physiology, 10th edition.

               6.    A.K. Jain; Human Physiology for BDS students, 1st edition.



               1.   Berne & Levey; Physiology, 2nd edition.

               2.   West-Best & Taylor’s, Physiological basis of Medical Practise, 11th edition.



               1.    Rannade; Practical Physiology, 4th edition.

               2.    Ghai; a text book of practical physiology.

               3.    Hutchison’s; Clinical Methods, 20th  edition. 




         Carbohydrates: Definition, biological importance and classification. Monosaccharides - Isomerism, anomerism. Sugar derivatives, Disaccharides.             

         Polysaccharides. Structures of starch and glycogen. Lipids : Definition, biological importance and classification. Fats and fatty acids. Introduction to 

         compound lipids. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups. Cholesterol. Bile salts. Micelle. Bimolecular leaflet. Proteins: Biological importance. Aminoacids:     

         Classification. Introduction to peptides. Proteins : Simple and conjugated; globular and fibrous. Charge properties. Buffer action . Introduction to protein 

         conformation . Denaturation.Nucleic acids: Building units . Nucleotides. Outline structure of DNA and RNA. High energy compounds: ATP , 

         Phosphorylamidines, Thiolesters, Enol phosphates.



         Energy needs: Basal metabolic rate. Dietary carbohydrates, fibres. Dietary lipids, essential fatty acids. Nitrogen balance. Essential amino acids. Protein quality 

         and requirement (methods for evaluation of protein quality to be excluded). Protein calorie malnutrition. Balanced diet. Enzymatic hydrolysis of dietary 

         carbohydrates. Mechanism of uptake of Monosaccharides. Digestion and absorption of triacylglycerols. Enzymatic hydrolysis of dietary proteins and uptake 

         of amino acids.


         Vitamins: Definition, classification, daily requirement, sources and deficiency symptoms. Brief account of water-soluble vitamins with biochemical functions. 

         Vitamins A functions including visual process. Vitamin D and its role in calcium metabolism. Vitamin E. Vitamin K and gamma carboxylation. Introduction to 

         antivitamins and hypervitaminosis.


         Minerals :Classification, daily requirement. Calcium and phosphate: sources, uptake, excretion, function. Serum calcium regulation. Iron: sources, uptake and 

         transport. Heme and nonheme iron functions; deficiency. Iodine: Brief introduction to thyroxine synthesis. General functions of thyroxine. Fluoride: function, 

         deficiency and excess. Indications of role of other minerals.



         Overview: Outlines of glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation and citric acid cycle. Beta oxidation of fatty acids. Electron transport chain and oxidative 

         phosphorylation. Ketone body formation and utilisation. Introduction to glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, fatty acid synthesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis. 

         Gluconeogenesis. Lactate metabolism . Protein utilisation for energy. Glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids. Integration of metabolism.



         Importance of pentose phosphate pathway. Formation of glucuronic acid. Outlines of cholesterol synthesis and breakdown. Ammonia metabolism. Urea 

         formation. Phosphocreatine formation. Transmethylation. Amines. Introduction to other functions of amino acids including one carbon transfer.

         Detoxication : Typical reactions. Examples of toxic compounds. Oxygen toxicity



         Introduction to nucleotides; formation and degradation. DNA as genetic material. Introduction to replication and transcription. Forms and functions of RNA. 

         Genetic code and mutation. Outline of translation process. Antimetabolites and antibiotics interfering in replication, transcription and translation. Introduction 

         to cancer, viruses and oncogenes.



         Enzymes: Definition, classification, specificity and active site. Cofactors. Effect of pH, temperature and substrate concentration. Introduction to enzyme 

         inhibitors, proenzymes and isoenzymes. Introduction to allosteric regulation, covalent modification and regulation by induction/repression.

         Overview of hormones. Introduction to second messengers, cyclic AMP, calcium ion, inositol triphosphate. Mechanism of action of steroid hormones,     

         epinephrine, glucagon and insulin in brief. Acid base regulation. Electrolyte balance.



        Connective tissue: Collagen and elastin. Glycosaminoglycans. Bone structure. Structure of membranes. Membrane associated processes in brief. Exocytosis 

        and endocytosis. Introduction to cytoskeleton. Myofibril and muscle contraction in brief.

        Haemoglobin: functions. Introduction to Heme synthesis and degradation. Plasma proteins: classification and separation. Functions of albumin. A brief 

        account of immunoglobulins. Plasma lipoproteins: Formation, function and turnover.




        Regulation of blood glucose. Diabetes mellitus and related disorders. Evaluation of glycemic status. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: Biochemical 

        evaluation. Hyperlipoproteinemias and atherosclerosis, Approaches to treatment. Jaundice: Classification and evaluation. Liver function tests: Plasma protein 

        pattern, serum enzymes levels. Brief introduction to kidney function tests and gastric function tests. Acid base imbalance. Electrolyte imbalance: evaluation. 

        Gout. Examples of genetic disorders including lysosomal storage disorders, glycogen storage disorders, glucose 6­phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, 

        hemoglobinopathies, inborn errors of amino acid metabolism and muscular dystrophy ( one or two examples with biochemical basis will be adequate). Serum 

        enzymes in diagnosis.


10.   PRACTICALS: Contact hours 50

            1.     Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates                                           4

            2.     Color reactions of proteins and amino acids                                 4

            3.     Identification of nonprotein nitrogen substance                             4

            4.     Normal constituents of urine                                                        4

            5.     Abnormal constituents of urine                                                     4

            6.     Analysis of saliva including amylase                                              2

            7.     Analysis of milk                                                                           2

                    Quantitative estimations        

            8.     Titrable acidity and ammonia in urine                                            2

            9.     Free and total acidity in gastric juice                                             2

           10.    Blood glucose estimation                                                              2    

           11.    Serum total protein estimation                                                       2    

           12.    Urine creatinine estimation                                                            2     


           13.    Paper electrophoresis charts/clinical data evaluation                       2

           14.    Glucose tolerance test profiles                                                       2

           15.    Serum lipid profiles                                                                       1

           16.    Profiles of hypothyrodisim and hyperthyrodisim                             1

           17.    Profiles of hyper and hypoparathyrodism                                      1

           18.    Profiles of liver function                                                                1

           19.    Urea, uric acid creatinine profile in kidney disorders                      1

           20.    Blood gas profile in acidosis/ alkalosis                                           1



        Reference books: